How did Giuseppe Garibaldi contribute to modern fashion?
About Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807−1882) heard – and even studied in school – almost everyone. He was a patriot of Italy, a fighter for the independence and unification of the country. What, actually, can be common between him and the world of fashion, especially the current one? However, there is a connection. Sandra Cunningham Shutterstock.com The famous Italian made a revolution not only in Italy, but also in the closets of his contemporaries. Moreover, without two items of clothing that have become extremely popular thanks to Garibaldi, fashion today is simply unthinkable. Judge for yourself. It’s about jeans. Yes, the very ones that today exist in the wardrobe of almost every inhabitant of the earth (at least the one who dresses in a European way). And about the women’s blouse. Are you surprised? Of course, Garibaldi did not wear women’s blouses, but … However, it is worth telling everything from the beginning. Until the mid-19th century, riots broke out in Italy, torn apart by Austrians and Spaniards: Italian patriots of all walks of life seek to overthrow the oppressors and unite the country. The captain of the brigantine Giuseppe Garibaldi also did not stand aside. The future hero joined the “Young Italy” liberation movement. In 1834, after a failed conspiracy against the dukes of Savoy, he was sentenced to death in absentia and was forced to flee first to France, then to Tunisia, and then to South America. The rebellious spirit did not allow him to live in peace: an active Italian participated in the uprising in Brazil, helped revolutionaries in Uruguay, for some time he taught and even pirated (as captain of the marque frigate). It was in America that Garibaldi acquired his original style of dressing. In many photographs and portraits, he is depicted in a red shirt, a low borderless cap and a poncho. Italian patriots began to wear the same shirt, sewn with the hands of mothers, wives and girlfriends. Regarding the choice of red color there is no consensus. According to one version, when in 1848 Garibaldi had the opportunity to return to Italy, he gathered several hundred compatriots and went to help his fellow wrestlers. But the Italians did not want to appear in the homeland with little potholes, but they donned a uniform, as befits a real legion. Although there was little money, Garibaldi managed to acquire inexpensive red flannel shirts intended for workers in Argentine slaughterhouses (not very noticeable on red blood). According to another version, the same color “top” of the Italian revolutionaries appeared later. While in New York, Garibaldi liked the red uniform of the local volunteer fire brigades. So when he went to Sicily in 1860 at the head of his famous “thousand”, his people were wearing red shirts. With the landing of the Garibaldians on the island and the unification of Italy into a single kingdom began. And the memory of their exploits was perpetuated in the song “Red Shirt” (“La camicia rossa”), which turned into a hymn of the liberation movement. So, the detachments dressed in red shirts under the command of a brave captain (on land he had reached the general) looked bright and elegant and showed unspeakable courage in battles. What delighted the whole of Europe. Garibaldi himself became an idol and inspiration for many revolutionaries of the time. Enthusiastic admirers of the fearless Italian wished to imitate him at least in the manner of dressing. Several garments named after him came into vogue: “garibaldi” – a shirt with a collar and long sleeves on the cuffs, a flat, low, borderless cap, a red jacket with an ornament in the Italian folk style, and a Kalabreza hat (national The headdress of the men of Calabria is the birthplace of many Garibaldians). Shirts were so popular that, changing their style a little, they began to be worn by ladies who, until the middle of the 19th century, wore only dresses. Thus, the red “garibaldi”, decorated with black or green braid, was a prototype of a modern blouse. Fashionable novelty is usually combined with a dark skirt and tightened with a wide belt. A little later, they began to sew from white matter, decorating with laces, inserts and embroidery. Renamed the “English blouse” shirt, “garibaldi” forever caught on in the ladies’ wardrobe. Under the influence of the subsequent fashion, the blouse changed the style, fabric, colors, finishes, but always remained a sought-after piece of women’s clothing. And not only fashionistas. From the 70s of the 19th century, the voices of feminists began to sound more and more often: many women did not want to put up with their secondary position in society and began to actively fight for civil rights. Therefore, they gladly donned Garibaldi shirts. Firstly, it is very convenient and practical even for persons from poor families: it is quite possible to combine a blouse with a skirt converted from an old dress. And then, being originally a masculine garment, the shirt, albeit symbolically, but equalized women with men.